Pilot Plant for biomass Pyrolysis Flash for bio oil production
PROPERTY: Spike Renewables Srl
Patent application: n. 102015000042343 date 05.08.2015
Patent code: NSS 102015000042343

  Pilot Plant for biomass Hydro Thermal Liquefaction (HTL) for bio oil production
PROPERTY: Spike Renewables Srl / RE-CORD
Patent application n. FI2015A000127 data di deposito 29.04.2015
Patent n. 1429628

   Process and Plant for Bioethanol production
PROPERTY: Spike Renewables Srl / ENEA
Patent application n. FI2009A000232 date 05.11.2009
Patent n. 1396891 code NSS 102009901780671

 Microturbine fueled by vegetable pure oil
PROPERTY: Spike Renewables Srl / IBT Srl
Patent application n. FI2011A000228 date 20.10.2011
Patent n. 1408243 code NSS 102011901988906


 E3S Web of Coferences: Design and development of three test facilities to evaluate heat transfer performances of advanced and low cost materials and coatings for geothermal application
76th Conference of the Italian Thermal Machines Engineering Association (ATI 2021), 15–17 September 2021, Roma, Italy
Paolo Taddei Pardelli, Andrea Mannelli, Claretta Tempesti, Luca Romani, Alberto Baroni , Lorenzo Bosi , Giovanni Ferrara

Abstract: Geothermal energy is accredited as a flexible, controllable and green source of energy. Heat exchangers (HXs) are one of the most critical components of a geothermal power plant due to corrosion and scaling phenomena. Hence, improvements in the antiscaling and anticorrosion properties as well as heat transfer performance of the HX materials will lead to smaller, more efficient and less costly systems. EU H2020 GeoHex project relies on the use low-cost carbon steel-based material for HXs. Through modifying the surface with nano porous coating and controlling the surface chemistry, the heat transfer performance of single phase and phase change process will be improved.
This paper presents the design and development of three lab scale test rigs to test the effectiveness of innovative materials and superficial treatments on heat exchange with geothermal brine in single, condensing and evaporating phases. The rigs have been equipped with all the necessary instrumentation for control and for data acquisition. In particular, the advanced coatings are applied on a small stainless-steel plate and R134a fluid has been used for heat transfer coefficient characterization in different phase conditions. GeoHex project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. Grant agreement n.851917.
Keywords: geothermal, heat exchange, test rig, energy efficiency, coatings

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 100RES2020 – Applied Energy Simposium (ICAE): Design of a scaling reduction system for geothermal applications
100% RENEWABLE: Strategies, technologies and challenges for a fossil free future, Pisa, Italy, October 25th-30th 2020.
P. Taddei Pardelli, C. Tempesti, A. Mannelli, A. Kravos, A. Sabard, F. Fanicchia, S. Paul, R. Şengun, H. A. Sahiller, U. Halaçoğlu, I. Pekdüz, A. Stefansson, I. M. Galeczka

Abstract: The aim of the EU 2020 GeoSmart project relies on the demonstration of innovative solutions to improve the flexibility and the efficiency of geothermal heat and power systems. This specific study focuses on issues related to silica scaling and its deposition on the reinjection wells. A limiting constraint for geothermal plants to fully utilize the thermal energy form well fluids is in fact the need to reinject geothermal brine at a high enough temperature to prevent thermodynamic fouling by silica scale deposition. GeoSmart aims to develop a solution based on retention system technology to control and reduce the silica scale formation before re-injection. Lowering reinjection temperature would strongly increase plant efficiency by providing extra useful heat. Based on silica scaling numerical simulation, the effects of parameters like pH, temperature and brine composition on silica polymerization and scaling deposition rates, the design and optimization of the retention system has been developed. The design aims to promote polymerization phenomena inside the tank so that scaling is consequently inhibited in the reinjection well pipes. Chemical additives and specific coatings have also been evaluated to guarantee the optimal required conditions. The case study is based on real-data referred to operational conditions and brine composition of the Zorlu Kizildere plant in Turkey. The economic and environmental impact of the retention system has been evaluated with positive outcomes.  The in-site test and validation at industrial level of the above mentioned technology will be provided during the next activities of the GeoSmart project.
Keywords: geothermal, silica scaling, retention tank, energy efficiency

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 AIP Conference Proceedings 2191, 020088 (2019): Heat Recovery at High Temperature by Molten Salts for High Temperature Processing Industries
74th Conference of the Italian Thermal Machines Engineering Association (ATI 2019), 11–13 September 2019, Modena, Italy
A. Gibbs, B. W. Robinson, S. Rougé, H. Jouhara, A. K. M. Asaduzzaman, M. Chowdhury, P. Kjellgren, A. M. Martí, P. Taddei Pardelli, N. Ciuffi

Abstract: Waste heat is a problem common to high temperature processing industries as a significantly underused resource, often due to challenges in economic heat valorization. Secondary aluminum recycling and ceramic processing were identified as key examples with economically recoverable waste heat. Several challenges are inherent; these processes are batch-based rather than continuous with corrosive particulate-laden flue gas over a wide temperature range.
The EU H2020 Smartrec project aims to develop a technology capable to recover heat at high temperature from industrial processes. It is being coordinated by UK-based company ALTEK, with the rest of the consortium being made up of companies from EU countries. The Smartrec project is aimed at developing a modularized standard heat recovery solution integrated with thermal energy storage (TES) and a knowledge-based software tool. Smartrec has been designed for industrial applications such as secondary aluminum (furnace), ceramic (kiln), cement (kiln) and flat glass (furnace) industries with a very harsh and corrosive environment.
The concept of Smartrec is based on the utilization of a Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) stable at high temperature (≥600°C) such as molten salts. Through a Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger (HPHE) the heat at the exit of heat source is transferred to the Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) which is circulating within the Smartrec loop. When the input waste heat source is available, HTF will simultaneously transfer heat to the user end process via a user end heat exchanger (HX) or to a thermal energy storage (TES). When the exhaust stream is unavailable, the TES will supply the needed thermal energy to the HTF which in turn will transfer it to the user end process via the user end HX.
The validation at industrial level of the abovementioned technology is currently ongoing as part of the Smartrec project.
Keywords: heat recovery, molten salts, industrial process, energy efficiency

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  IBSCE: Design of microalgae photobioreactors in modular alveolar coextruded polycarbonate panels as ventilated facades in the architectural system
IBSCE 2015 International Bioenergy (Shanghai) Exhibition and Asian Bioenergy Conference 21-23 October 2015, SHANGHAI – Session code 1BV.1.13
G.M. Benucci, D. Casini, M. Cocchi, D. Chiaramonti, A. Grassi, F. Peri, M. Prussi, P. & L. Taddei Pardelli

Abstract: Microalgae are capable of performing very efficient photosynthesis: they produce oxygen using greenhouse gas carbon dioxide to grow photo autotrophically. Most of these microalgae species produce unique products like carotenoids, antioxidants, fatty acids, enzymes, polymers and sterols.
Spike Renewables designed a ventilated facade made by photobioreactors that integrate microalgae culture into the architectural system. The design was based on polycarbonate panels (modules) to give maximum flexibility for the architectural fitting in new or existing buildings.
In the last few years activities on the field of photobioreactors architectural integration have been growing steadily; Spike Renewables project can rely on its previous experience in industrial plant design for microalgae cultivation for biofuel application in Italy and Chile. The design has been realized to maximize efficiency and operation; the control of nutrients, CO2, temperature, fluid flow and pathogens that affect the output are controlled continuously in the reactors and maintained in the range of operational set points.
The ventilated facades made by photo bio reactors is intended to increase the city green and therefore the absorption of carbon dioxide producing oxygen with aesthetic characteristics and undisputed advantages of soundproofing and building heat insulation.
Keywords: microalgae, photobioreactor, green buildings, carbon dioxide (CO2), urban agriculture, renewable energies

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  DEVELTAR: Tar Separation and Conversion using Microwaves (TSC-MW) to improve conversion efficiency into electric energy from pyro-gasification
EUBCE 2015 23rd European Biomass Conference & Exhibition 2 June 2015, VIENNA – Session code IBO.12
F. Lenzi, A. Scova, V.Tumiatti, D. Chiaramonti, A.M. Rizzo, P. Taddei Pardelli

Abstract: Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into energy through thermochemical processes such as combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. Nowadays pyrolysis and gasification, and their combination, are of great interest given their high overall conversion rate into energy compared to direct combustion. In this field, tar removal from output gas is still an open issue when energy conversion of such gas through engines or turbines is considered (tar is a general expression for a complex mixture mainly made of heavy hydrocarbons or poly-aromatic hydrocarbons). DEVELTAR project was aimed to investigate a device for the removal of tars (cracking) from pyrolysis and gasification gaseous effluents in order to improve their quality as fuel. Tars are condensed and collected by cooling the gaseous effluents than transferred by a wet film of oil to an electricity based technologies with high power and low energy such as microwaves that was extensively examined for this specific purpose. The device developed during the research project was able to use the electrical energy efficiently concentrated towards the disruption of tar molecules, minimizing energy losses through a proper geometrical configuration and setup of process parameters. The main advantage of these technologies is the possibility to concentrate most of the energy on the target molecules avoiding a general increase of the overall energetic level (temperature). The electrical device is not intended for a specific pyrolysis or gasification technology, but as wide-ranging add-on module to be coupled within the gas purification line. The validation at industrial level of the abovementioned technologies, currently known at fundamental research level only, was done at the end of the project. The main foreseen advantage of this technological approach is a relevant improvement in terms of yield of combustible gas, i.e. electrical energy produced downstream, through a low additional energy expenditure, hence an improvement of  the net energy balance. The DEVELTAR project has been implemented by Sea Marconi Technologies Sas, a leading company in the field of energy and environment, as project leader. Sea Marconi has been supported by Spike Renewables Srl a partners with relevant competences in the field of interest and a leading engineering and consultancy company in the renewable energy field.
Keywords: pyro-gasification, gasification, tar removal, electric conversion efficiency, biomass, microwaves

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BIODIET: development and test of lignocellulosic bioderivates for diesel engines to reduce emissions in the urban environment
ISAF 2011 and 2nd lignocellulosic bioethanol conference-14 October 2011, VERONA

Abstract: The BIODIET project, supported by the Italian Ministry for Environment, investigates the possibility of using lignocellulosic biomass derived liquids for addition or blending to fossil fuels. The target fuel is diesel oil, i.e. compression ignition engines, thus addressing a different goal than the usual gasoline chain, in which bioethanol is normally blended. The possibility to penetrate the diesel market will open new possibilities for the introduction of sugar-derived liquid biofuels. The project will explore the options offered from the “sugar” chain derived from lignocellulosic biomass fractionation through pretreatment and hydrolysis. Either the direct use of ethanol blended at small amount in diesel oil, or derivatives from the sugar (bio-hydrocarbons) and/or the ethanol (oxygenated additives as acetals, ethers, esters, etc) will be considered. Literature analysis as well as lab scale study will be carried out, to select the most interesting products and processes. The selected option will be considered for engine test in a small bench, where performances and emissions will be monitored. The sustainability of the entire chain will be examined, and a specific LCA conducted on the preferred solution, while results disseminated at the widest possible audience.
Keywords: diesel oil . bioethanol . lignocellulosic biomass . sugarsownload presentation

2nd generation lignocellulosic bioethanol: is torrefaction a possible approach to biomass pretreatment?
Published online 15 February 2011

Abstract:  Biomass pretreatement is a key and energyconsuming step for lignocellulosic ethanol production; it is largely responsible for the energy efficiency and economic sustainability of the process. A new approach to biomass pretreatment for the lignocellulosic bioethanol chain could be mild torrefaction. Among other effects, biomass torrefaction improves the grindability of fibrous materials, thus reducing energy demand for grinding the feedstock before hydrolysis, and opens the biomass structure, making this more accessible to enzymes for hydrolysis. The aim of the preliminary experiments carried out was to achieve a first understanding of the possibility to combine torrefaction and hydrolysis for lignocellulosic bioethanol processes, and to evaluate it in terms of sugar and ethanol yields. In addition, the possibility of hydrolyzing the torrefied biomass has not yet been proven. Biomass from olive pruning has been torrefied at different conditions, namely 180–280°C for 60–120 min, grinded and then used as substrate in hydrolysis experiments. The bioconversion has been carried out at flask scale using a mixture of cellulosolytic, hemicellulosolitic, β-glucosidase enzymes, and a commercial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The experiments demonstrated that torrefied biomass can be enzymatically hydrolyzed and fermented into ethanol, with yields comparable with grinded untreated biomass and saving electrical energy. The comparison between the bioconversion yields achieved using only raw grinded biomass or torrefied and grinded biomass highlighted that: (1) mild torrefaction conditions limit sugar degradation to 5–10%; and (2) torrefied biomass does not lead to enzymatic and fermentation inhibition. Energy consumption for ethanol production has been preliminary estimated, and three different pretreatment steps, i.e., raw biomass grinding, biomass-torrefaction grinding, and steam explosion were compared. Based on preliminary results, steam explosion still has a significant advantage compared to the other two process chains.
Keywords: Torrefaction . Lignocellulosic ethanol . Biomass pretreatment . Hydrolysis

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